Skip to main content
In response to user needs, the GHG Protocol has developed additional guidance that builds upon the more general standards.
Life Cycle Databases

This list of available third party databases assists users in collecting data for product life cycle and corporate value chain (scope 3) GHG inventories.

A summary of each source - including data formats, accessibility, content, and transparency information - is available by clicking on the database link. The list is not exhaustive and the inclusion of a database in this list does not constitute an endorsement by the GHG Protocol.

Some of the data in these sources may not be consistent with certain GHG Protocol standards. Before using a database, its documentation should be reviewed for transparency, completeness, and applicability to the GHG inventory for which the data is being collected. For example, a database may contain combustion-only emission factors that are not applicable to product life cycle GHG inventories. Data should also be evaluated using the data quality indicators described in the Corporate Value Chain (Scope 3) Accounting and Reporting Standard (chapter 7) and the Product Life Cycle Accounting and Reporting Standard (chapter 8) and selecting the highest quality data available in the context of business objectives and the principles of relevance, completeness, consistency, transparency, and accuracy.

The databases included below meet the following criteria:

  • They are able to be directly used by inventory developers (databases that require companies to also purchase consulting services or specific software tools to access them are not included in the list).
  • They have a corresponding website where users can review source documentation and additional information.

Third Party Databases

These databases assist users in collecting data for product life cycle and corporate value chain (scope 3) GHG inventories.


Input-output (JPY) tables with environmental burden measured as energy or emissions. Includes methodology.

Athena Institute

A set of comprehensive, comparable life cycle inventory databases for building materials and products in a series of reports.

Australian National Life Cycle Inventory Database (AusLCI)

The Australian National Life Cycle Inventory Database (AusLCI) is a major initiative currently being delivered by the Australian Life Cycle Assessment Society (ALCAS). The aim is to provide and maintain a national, publicly-accessible database with easy access to authoritative, comprehensive and transparent environmental information on a wide range of Australian products and services over their entire life cycle. It is an invaluable tool for those involved in environmental assessment and particularly life cycle assessment (LCA), as it provides consistent guidelines, principles and methodologies for the collection of life cycle inventory (LCI) data, along with protocols for LCA processes for different sectors.

Bath Inventory of Carbon and Energy (ICE)

Database of embodied energy and carbon of building materials. Database provides details of original references so users can check original sources.

Bilan Carbone™

Emissions factors and their calculation to allow GHG reporting under the Bilan CarboneTM Method.

Biomass Environmental Assessment Tool (BEAT)

Impact assessment of likely environmental impacts from biomass energy projects.

Building Research Establishment

Environmental profiles of construction and building materials.


A life-cycle inventory (LCI) database profiling the environmental inputs and outputs associated with the production of packaging.

Canadian Raw Materials Database

A database profiling the environmental inputs and outputs associated with the production of Canadian commodity materials. The database uses the techniques of life-cycle inventory, consistent with the method of life-cycle assessment.

Carbon Calculations over the Life Cycle of Industrial Activities (CCaLC)

This database contains 5,500 carbon footprint data items for materials, energy, transport, packaging and waste. It comprises CCaLC, ILCD and Ecoinvent (with permission of Ecoinvent) databases. The database is an integral element of the CCaLC software tool.

Carnegie Mellon

A life-cycle inventory database profiling the environmental inputs and outputs associated with several sectors including packaging.

Centre for Environmental Assessment of Product and Material Systems (CPM) Chalmers

Online database that provides access to over 500 datasets previously published in the SPINE@CPM database. National life cycle inventory of Sweden hosted by Chalmers University

Chinese Life Cycle Database (CLCD)

A national background LCI database consists of ca. 600 LCI datasets for key materials and chemicals, energy carriers, transport, and waste management, which is based on a consistent core life cycle model and represents the combination of various technologies in Chinese market.


Environmentally-Extended Input-Output Life Cycle Inventory for the U.S., designed to assist LCAs, carbon, energy, water, waste and toxic impact assessments throughout the supply chain. CEDA represents over 380 unique industries.


Conversion factors allowing organizations and individuals to calculate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a range of activities, including energy use, water consumption, waste disposal, recycling and transport activities.


The E3IOT database contains a high resolution, environmentally extended input output table for Europe which covers production, consumption and waste management sectors. Almost 500 production sectors are distinguished. Added to the production sectors are a number of consumption activities with direct emissions, such as automobile driving, cooking and heating, and a number of postconsumer waste management sectors.


The ecoinvent database provides a rich pool of secondary data for scope 3 GHG reporting and can help reporters fill data gaps by providing regional or global average GHG emission factors, average transport distances and modes, and regional product and technology mixes. In addition, separated scope 2 and 3 emission factors for electricity are also available.

ecoinvent Wastewater Tool

The free ecoinvent Wastewater Tool allows users to create LCI inventories for the treatment of wastewater, available in ecoSpold 2 format. The tool has a web-based interface, through which users can specify the chemical and physical properties of the wastewater, as well as the operating conditions and technology type of the facility, to generate case-specific datasets.

EIME (Environmental Improvement Made Easy)

Several licensing schemes: University (3,000€/year, unlimited users), Classic (3,000€/year, 5 users), Comfort (10,000€/year, 5 users), Light (2,180€/year, 1 user).


The ELCD core database comprises Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data from front-running EU-level business associations and other sources for key materials, energy carriers, transport, and waste management.

Environmental Product Declarations (EPD)

Environmental Product Declaration reports.


A database in the sectors of energy, basic minerals, materials, food and lifestyles, consisting of ca. 4,000 unit process datasets, of which about 1000 have been included in ecoinvent.

European Aluminum Association (EAA)

An environmental report which provides up-to-date life cycle inventory data (LCI) for aluminum production and transformation processes in Europe.

European Container Glass Association (CGA)

A Life Cycle Assessment of container glass production and transformation processes in Europe.

European Copper Institute (ECI)

Life Cycle Assessments of 3 types of copper products: tubes, sheets, wire.

European Federation of Corrugated Board Manufacturers (FEFCO)

Cradle to grave datasets for paper and corrugated board production.

Footprint Expert

For direct customers, a 1-year licence for access to Footprint Expert costs from £1,500+VAT, with a renewal fee to receive updates in subsequent years from £1,000 plus VAT. For consulting company users, a separate fee schedule applies.

Franklin US LCI

LCI data for several materials, embedded in SimaPro software.

GaBi Databases

With 15,000 plans and processes, built from several times as many unit process instances and to a large extent based on primary data collection during our global work with companies, associations and public bodies, GaBi is the leading product sustainability solution for Life Cycle Assessment with over 10,000 users globally. 

Global Emission Model for Integrated Systems (GEMIS)

A life-cycle analysis program and database for energy, material, and transport systems.

Global LCA Data Access (GLAD)

The Global LCA Data Access network is a coalition of dataset providers (nodes), providing access to consult their datasets through GLAD to users worldwide. The purpose of GLAD is to provide a global network comprised of independently-operated and interoperable LCA databases that connects multiple data sources to support life cycle assessment in a way that facilitates sustainability-related decisions.

Greenhouse Gas Protocol

A series of tools for calculating GHG emissions inventories based on 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.

Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET)

Energy and emission impacts of advanced vehicle technologies and new transportation fuels, the fuel cycle from wells to wheels and the vehicle cycle through material recovery and vehicle disposal.


Disaggregated, parameterized, and document Life Cycle Inventories covering several sectors. Data are provided in a customized way and in various formats. Data are subject to annual update.

International Energy Agency (IEA) GHG Programme

Global database of large stationary point sources of CO2 emissions from publicly available sources.

International Iron and Steel Institute (IISI)

A life cycle inventory (LCI) study to quantify resources use, energy and environmental emissions associated with the processing of fourteen steel industry products from the extraction of raw materials in the ground through to the steel factory gate.

International Stainless Steel Federation (ISSF)

A life cycle inventory (LCI) study to quantify resources use, energy and environmental emissions associated with the processing of cold roll and white hot rolled steel.

International Tin Research Institute (ITRI)

A life cycle inventory (LCI) study to quantify resources use, energy and environmental emissions associated with the processing of cold roll and white hot rolled steel.

International Zinc Association (IZA)

Three life cycle assessment (LCA) to quantify impacts associated with primary zinc, zinc sheet roofing and zinc sheet.

Inventory Database for Environmental Analysis (IDEA)

IDEA, which stands for "Inventory Database for Environmental Analysis", is the standard equipment inventory database for MiLCA LCA software. 3000 datasets are available in both gate to gate and cradle to gate type

IPCC Emissions Factor Database

Library of emission factors and other parameters with background documentation or technical references.

LCI Calculation Tool for Crop Production

The free ecoinvent LCI calculation tool for crop production allows users to create LCI inventories for the production of various crops, in ecoSpold 2 format. The tool user needs to define certain characteristics of the crop production, such as yield, irrigation, fertilising etc. in a spreadsheet template. Based on this input, the tool delivers an undefined unit process dataset.

LCI Calculation Tools for Regionalised Waste Treatment

Several free spreadsheet-based calculation tools allow users to generate life cycle inventory datasets, in ecoSpold 2 format, for the treatment of solid wastes. Different wastes and treatment options can be considered. By providing chemical and physical specifications of the waste, as well as the treatment technology, users can generate customised datasets.

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Life Cycle Inventory (LCI)

Data modules that quantify the material and energy flows into and out of the environment for common unit processes.


openLCA Nexus is an online repository for LCA data. Nexus contains a powerful search engine for LCA data that allows filtering requested data sets by database, or by year, geographical location, by industrial sector, and not the least by product and price. Nexus contains free and “for purchase” data sets.


A comprehensive analytical database that enables the user to gauge in detail the environmental impacts arising from the production and use of goods and services in the United States.

Plastics Europe

Life Cycle Inventories (LCI), Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) and Environmental Product Declarations (EPD) of high volume bulk polymers, widely used engineering plastics, and standard plastics conversion processes of the European Plastics Industry.

ProBas (Prozessorientierte Basisdaten fϋr Umweltmanagement-Instrumente)

IT-supported project of basic data for environmental management with extended search and data filtering options.

SICV Brazil

The Brazilian National Life Cycle Inventories database (SICV Brazil) is a database created to host Life Cycle Inventories (LCI) of Brazilian national products. SICV maintains the life cycle inventories of products and processes of the Brazilian industry. 

Sustainable Recycling Industries – Life cycle Inventories project datasets and tools

More than 1700 free life cycle inventory datasets across numerous sectors and regions, as well as four life cycle inventory tools accessible.

Swiss Agricultural Life Cycle Assessment (SALCA)

The SALCA database (Swiss Agricultural Life Cycle Assessment database) contains over 700 modules relating to agriculture with agricultural and non-agricultural inputs, outputs and processes.

SRI Global Refinery Model

The free SRI Global Refinery Model is a spreadsheet-based calculation tool to generate life cycle inventories for the refining of petroleum. Users can select from one of three default refinery configurations and specify the properties of the crude oil to model a specific or a regional average situation.

U.S. EPA Supply Chain Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors for U.S. Commodities and Industries

The U.S. EPA Supply Chain Emission Factors for U.S. Industries and Commodities dataset is a comprehensive set of supply chain emission factors covering all categories of goods and services in the U.S. economy. These factors are intended for quantifying emissions from purchased goods and services using the spend-based method defined in the Greenhouse Gas Protocol Technical Guidance for Calculating Scope 3 Emissions.